Yes, after removing your fly trap from the plastic tube, it can stay in the same pot.
Here is some additional care info: Place your plant in a spot that gets a lot of light and water it using distilled water. Venus fly traps are sensitive to high salt levels, which can accumulate over time in the soil if tap water is used. You can fertilize it using a very low rate of fertilizer (20% the regular rate) once in the spring time if you like, but using distilled water will usually give the best results. You can remove your Venus fly trap from the casing you bought it in. It is meant to keep in moisture at the stores where they may not be receiving water very often. Individual fly traps tend to die after about 5 feedings, but stronger traps should grow back in their place. You can cut off the black traps in order to keep the rest of the plant clean.